Feeding the World and Saving the Planet.
1. There are many opinions about how our food is produced and how the countryside should be managed, but some of the arguments are wildly inaccurate. When did we get so far removed from reality? For some people, the lack of exposure to nature is causing depressions and other mental health issues. Keeping hens and bees, growing food from seed and looking after the land and our animals is not only something we need to understand and protect, but is of tremendous benefit to our overall health.
2. Farm animals are not slaughtered for their skins to make leather handbags, in the same way that sheep are not slaughtered for their fleece. The wool is a by-product of the meat industry and is vastly underused and undervalued. For some breeds of sheep, not shearing can bring great misery and even death via parasites. But the fleece has become almost worthless, and so understandable that some farmers cannot afford to shear. Those breeds which don’t need shearing are not always able to survive winter conditions on a traditional hill farm.
3. It seems out of kilter in these planet conscious days that man-made fibres have overtaken the more traditional materials such as wool. Maybe we should get back to what is, after all a more natural product and helps to sustain the farming industry. As it stands, cheap imports rely on materials which are not always planet friendly and may even contain plastics. If the animal is bred for the food chain, then it makes ethical sense to use every part of that animal.
4. Farming and food production gets unfairly singled out for the mass destruction of animals. Extreme vegan activists are concerned about the exploitation of sentient beings. This is an admirable cause, but we are all guilty of the claims made against non-vegans by merely existing and going about our business. I don’t believe it’s tenable to take the food chain argument down to extreme levels. We kill animals when we drive cars, fly in planes, build railway tracks, farm grain, grow apples, hunt for pleasure, or mine sand. We alter ecosystems when we put up new housing developments and ship lentils across the world. We push native animals out of their environments all the time and being vegan doesn’t alter these facts. Being vegan doesn’t make you a paragon of virtue in relation to saving the planet. We all need to consider planning smaller families, recycling and repairing, taking less long-haul trips and driving smaller cars.
5. It’s good to have diversity in the food we produce. If the population was all entirely vegan and reliant on a short list of ingredients, it would create yet another set of problems in trying to feed millions of people on legumes, nuts, and flax; and artificial meat substitutes produced in a factory. The entire countryside would be given over to vast swathes of specific crops. Controlling those areas set aside for growing crops such as peas, creates a need to control other animals eating or destroying that crop because to grow anything on a vast scale invariably means that something else is compromised. Over a five year period up to 2013 rice farmers in NSW killed 200,000 ducks in order to protect the crop.
6. As an aside, I think we do eat too much protein, especially red and processed meat, and probably not enough vegetables and fruit. Meat is not good for us in big quantities – but then, neither is anything else, including peas, beans and lentils. All things in moderation is a cliche for a reason. It makes sense to eat foods in season and produced locally so why not spend a little more and buy local, grass-fed meat, but eat it less often? Natural, sustainable, and local to the area where we live surely creates the right balance and is likely to be more suited to the land. Massive carbon emissions are created by long haul flights bringing out of season foods to the UK, invariably wrapped in plastic.
7. I’m not vegan or vegetarian, but that doesn’t mean I have no empathy for animals reared for the table. What we should be doing is looking to improve animal welfare ie: not importing animals thousands of miles in crates and lorries to meet their demise in another country, or supporting those products which are mass produced, such as eggs from battery hens. Eggs are cheap anyway so take a moment to read the labels, and buy local, free range.
8. Our world population is too high – the root of all our problems – to restrict food production to a single type. The key to finding harmony between all the arguments, moral or otherwise, is respect and education. I think it’s great that some of the population are vegetarian or vegan, but it’s just as worthy of acceptance that the rest of us choose to eat meat, fish, and dairy.
The 2018 Annual Gathering of the Carneddau Ponies
Picture this. An early Sunday morning in November on the Carneddau Mountains and a small convoy of assorted vehicles heads up into the clouds. This vast coastal area is mostly inhabited by sheep, and features bogs, boulders, ditches, deep ravines, and rough tracks. Celtic standing stones and burial mounds are scattered across remote hillsides, amid miles and miles of undulating heather and gorse. When the sea fog creeps in with the tide, visibility can be reduced from poor to, well… zero.
The mission: to find in the region of 200 Carneddau ponies and shepherd them down to a single hill farm at the top of Llanfairfechan. Mission impossible?
The bleak, often cruel beauty of the Carneddau is a double-edged sword because the land here has supported these ponies since Celtic times, with little human interference. And although they’ve likely had connections to the more well-known Welsh Mountain Pony variants somewhere in their past, the Carneddau have been scientifically proven to have the most inexplainable DNA – a kind of unique, indestructible set of genes which sets them apart from not only other domestic ponies, but from other wild native breeds as well. And one has to appreciate that the kinder, more temperate habitats of our native Exmoor, Dartmoor, and New Forest ponies are also controlled and managed more selectively, whereas the Carneddau are isolated in all senses of the word. These ponies shape the land, and the land shapes them…
In essence, the Carneddau ponies are a product of pure wildness…
Susanne Shultz (Senior Research Fellow at Manchester University) has spent many years studying the herds and logging their movements, understanding their social groupings, taking samples and analysing their lives to an astonishing level of detail. One item which did stand out was that the ponies’ social groups were paramount in maintaining health, especially as they aged – and this was a big factor in underpinning their physical fitness. Ponies (and people) with good social interactions generally enjoy a better quality of life. Of course, there will always be some individuals who fall by the wayside or just prefer to be loners, as evident in our own social structure. Interestingly, stress levels in the ponies during the gathering were not especially high – the levels only rose when the ponies were returned to the hills and endeavoured to re-establish their social groups.
Susanne goes so far as to suggest that this wild gene pool might be introduced to strengthen the breeding lines of domestic ponies who’ve fallen foul of various commercial and domestic traps such as sustained inbreeding. Small, domestic ponies are often prone to laminitis and a whole list of other ailments which clearly don’t affect the Carneddau ponies. Occasionally there are ponies on the hills with skeletal abnormalities and defects such as locking stifles, something which may have crept in due to the breed being watered down by the dumping of domestic horses on the mountains, or simply it’s the weaker ones falling foul of the brutal climate – or a combination of unfortunate circumstances. What is clear is that in order to protect their natural selection process (i.e. their breeding and social grouping) questions have to asked about our level of interference, because their way has seen them adapt to survive on this land for centuries. Essentially, these ponies enjoy a freedom denied to the majority of equines.
Standing in the mist-wreathed landscape, boots slowly sinking into a wet mattress of heather, the noise of the wind and the rumble of a distant quad broken only by the occasional whinny, was slightly eerie. And the ponies are well camouflaged; the colours of bracken and stone, rainclouds and earth. Occasionally we’d glimpse a small herd, moving easily across the landscape in a seamless line. The high-stepping speed with which they cover the ground is challenging for the following drivers, often risking life and limb over the unforgiving terrain.
An entirely voluntary exercise, the annual gathering is deeply rooted in Welsh tradition and reaches back several generations to a time when entire villages were involved – either on foot, or on horseback. A time when communities pulled together to ensure that the future of these herds were protected and managed to the best of their abilities. But these are modern times and although lots of people have strong opinions about the ponies, sadly, few people are interested enough to offer time and practical help. Given the depleted manpower available it’s doubtful the gatherings could continue without the use of quads, scramblers, and 4X4 vehicles. Helpers prepared to walk, line-out across the hills forming a human barrier to deter the ponies from chasing back uphill; while the vehicles traverse the Carneddau, circling as far as Tal Y Fan and out towards Conwy, driving the ponies down towards Llanfairfechan.
Today, the same seven local farming families who continue to graze sheep on the Carneddau, retain the rights of guardianship as the Carneddau Pony Society. Gareth Wyn Jones, spokesman for the society, owns just 7 of these ponies while his uncle and father (still incredibly active on the farm at the age of 82) lay claim to around 80. After some five hours, around 150 ponies moved in a long, colourful caterpillar along the single-track lane to Tyn Llwyfan. An emotive sight; some cautious, some bold, some distinctly flighty, many of them vocal! The ponies were segregated into ownership groups – no mean feat. The individual families then make decisions as to which colts and young stallions need to be held off the mountain, along with the old and sick – on this occasion watched over in an advisory capacity by veterinary surgeon, Ellie Salisbury. Obviously, there are no predators on the Carneddau and so numbers need to be managed in order to allow the available grazing to support the existing ponies, and the resident sheep.
The vast majority of the ponies removed at these yearly gatherings are re-homed; thanks to various successful schemes working with the society such as conservation grazing – headed-up by Hilary Keyhoe (PONT coordinator and North Wales Regional Development Officer),or simply as companions to solo horses on private yards. The society even received a request for a matching pair of colts to be brought on as driving ponies, and many more have been taken on for rehoming and rehabilitating by Jackie Williams (Bryn Gaseg, Anglesey).
At times it seems a thankless task, managing 200 wild ponies which are worth nothing in monetary terms, and it’s a job which can occasionally attract negative press. Essentially, the Carneddau Pony Society is up against a balancing act between conservation issues, the rigours of a farming livelihood, and those who are perhaps misunderstanding of the ethos. But one has to look objectively at the roots of life on the Carneddau in order to appreciate the most effective way to co-exist, and it’s clear how much can be achieved if ideas, opinions, and resources are pooled. Looking at the big picture is an essential part of survival and exists at the heart of every successful community – both human, and equine.